The civil law is a set of laws that govern the legal rights of individuals, and include a range of social and political rules.
The laws also have to be enforced by a court.
Civil law questions The Civil Code of 1949, for example, outlines a number of rights that must be respected by Chinese people.
This includes:• Freedom of speech and expression.• The right to an education.• Freedom to marry.• Right to property.• Protection of religious rights.• Equality before the law.• Access to justice and equality with other citizens.• Religious freedom.
The government also has some powers over civil society.
It can issue a decree, for instance, that a business cannot refuse to allow a group of people to take part in a religious ceremony.
However, it can also issue a regulation that a group is not allowed to march in a parade.
Other laws in the Civil Code deal with issues related to gender and sexuality.
The main focus of these is protection of children, as well as protection of families, and the rights of the elderly.
Other social and economic rightsThe Civil Code sets out basic rights and responsibilities for Chinese people, such as:• the right to equality before the laws, the protection of property and the right of access to health care;• the protection and development of human rights, such the right not to be subject to discrimination;• access to education and social security;• right to free expression;• free access to markets;• equal treatment under the law;• freedom from violence and discrimination.
The civil code also outlines some of the social and public policies that Chinese people must abide by, such:• protection of civil rights, freedoms and basic rights;• protection and promotion of family and home life;• protecting freedom of religion;• social welfare, health, education, justice and other fundamental rights; and• the enforcement of civil law.
The Civil Rights Commission is an independent body that is responsible for enforcing the civil code.
The Human Rights Law is a special law that gives China broad powers to punish and punish without distinction those who commit crimes.
Chinese officials have long used this law to crack down on dissidents.
In March 2013, a man from the northeastern province of Liaoning was sentenced to 14 years in prison for “violating the civil rights of citizens.”
The sentence was later commuted to a 10-year sentence, which was later extended to 16 years.
In March 2018, a former Chinese general, Zhang Yipeng, was sentenced in the United States to life in prison after being convicted of crimes against humanity and crimes against national security.
China’s Human Rights Commission has been criticized by rights groups and human rights advocates for its failure to act against Chinese officials who commit human rights abuses, especially those who have committed crimes against Chinese citizens.
In June 2018, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution urging China to end its crackdown on human rights defenders.
China also continues to implement a raft of policies that target social media.
Its internet filtering and surveillance system has been used extensively to monitor the online activities of critics of the government.